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Thursday, February 9, 2017

Interactive Session with Hon'ble Minister of State (Finance) Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal on 17th February 2017


Education Loan Task Force (ELTF) organises an “Interactive Session” with Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal, Hon’ble Union Minister of State (Finance and Corporate Affairs), Government of India on 17th February 2017 at Clarion Hotel President, Dr Radhakrishnan Salai, Mylapore, Chennai 600004.  Zonal Heads of all the banks operating in Tamil Nadu and the NGOs who are working on Education Loans and StanupIndia Loans will participate.  The discussion will be held between 3 PM and 5 PM. 

The purpose of this interactive session is to understand the problems of the students, entrepreneurs and the Banks in implementing the Scheme effectively and to find out solutions.  This session will also bridge the gap between all the stakeholders.  It is a positive initiative by Education Loan Task Force (ELTF).

Admission is only by invitation.  Only NGOs who are working on Education Loans and StanupIndia Loans may write to us at info@eltf.in for invitation with details.  Or a message can be sent through WhatsApp with full details over 9176650273 (Please avoid voice calls – only whatsapp message to be sent)

Individual grievances will not be discussed in this session.  Only the common problems faced by students, entrepreneurs and banks will be discussed. 

This is the first time such interactive session is being held in India with the Minister, involving the stakeholders of Education Loan.  

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

ELTF submits four pre-budget recommendations to Finance Minister on Education Loan

ELTF submits pre budget recommendation to Ministry of Finance on Education Loan

Education Loan Task Force (ELTF) has submitted 4 Pre-Budget recommendations to Ministry of Finance for their consideration on 3rd January 2017.  This has been acknowledged by the Office of Minister of State (Finance).    The following recommendations have been submitted by ELTF to the Government of India.
This is the text of the letter sent to Ministry.
On behalf of Educational Loan Task Force (an initiative of emagazine PreSense), we suggest the following for consideration while finalizing the Budget for FY2017-18.

1.  1.  Banks are not implementing properly the Education Loan Scheme formulated by IBA.  ELTF has been taking up this issue time and again. Since the Banks have more liquidity after demonetisation, the Government of India may advise all the banks to be more liberal and give priority in sanctioning Education Loans to poor students to pursue higher studies.

2.  2.  Rate of Interest charged by the Banks are very high.  Government of India MHRD provides 'Interest Subsidy' to the students who pursue professional and technical courses during study period plus one year.  Though the Government of India promises 100% reimbursement, in reality, only around 25% to 30% are given to students.  ELTF suggests that (a) more funds should be allotted to provide 100% interest subsidy during the eligible period.  (b) Also, in addition to professional and technical courses, the poor students who pursue other courses, including diploma courses may be given interest subsidy.

3.  3.  Time and again ELTF has been suggesting the Government to set up an Institution to refinance Education Loans given by the Banks, on the lines of IDBI, NABARD and SIDBI.  The new Institution may be named as 'Vidya Development Bank of India' (VDBI).  This institution can get funding from the Government of India and also from International Organisations.  The Banks may be given refinance against the Education Loans sanctioned by them.  This will reduce the interest burden of the students, after they complete the studies.

4. 4.  The Government should declare Education Loan to poor students to pursue higher education as the 'Most Priority' item. Education Loan borrowers may given priority for another loan,  if they come forward to set up  their own 'start-ups'.   This will be a great investment on the youth to develop the future India.

Thursday, August 11, 2016

Prime Minister Narendra Modi listened to Dr Anbumani Ramadass MP on Education loan issues

Dr Anbumani Ramadass MP presenting the Education loan issues to Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 10th August 2016

Dr Anbumani Ramadass MP presented a letter to Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 10th August 2016, containing the various issues relating to Education loan.  ELTF is approaching all the Parliamentarians to take up the Education Loan issues with the Government and Parliament.  Recently, Shri T K Rangarajan MP took up the issues in Rajya Sabha.

On our request, Dr Anbumani Ramadass MP met the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi personally on 10th August 2016 and explained to him the various problems faced by students who have availed eduction loan from banks.  He also quoted the incidents of Reliance Assets Reconstruction Company harassing the students forcing them to comit suicide.  Dr Anbumani personally informed ELTF that Prime Minister went through the letter line by line patiently and listened to him fully.  He also promised that he would look into this matter on top priority.

The text of the letter given to Prime Minister by Dr Anbumani is reproduced below.  ELTF thanks Dr Anbumani Ramadass for having taken up the issue personally with the Prime Minister.

Text of the letter

Date: 10.09.2016



Sub: The sale of SBI's active education loan as NPA to Reliance Assets Reconstruction Company (RARC) – Regarding- Urgent need to regulate student friendly policies.


This mail is in correspondence to recent incidents as regards education loans and the most insensitive practice of banks that sell active education loans as NPA’s to Assets Reconstruction Companies.

You might be aware of a recent episode where SBI (State Bank of India) was reported to have sold its active education loan as NPA to Reliance Assets Reconstruction Company (RARC). This is highly condemnable and a matter of serious concern. It is indeed disheartening to note that many banks do not follow the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) and IBA (Indian Banks’ Association) guidelines in fixing the repayment schedule for student education loans to commence one year after completion of the course.

The current guidelines also stipulate a 15-year period with telescopic repayment installment as schedule. However, most banks fix a higher amount of EMI (Equated Monthly Installment) within a short repayment period.  This results in students being burdened during their initial career days to pay a huge sum as repayment. It also forces most of the students to default in their repaying their loans. Misusing this, after three months of default, the banks immediately classify the loan as Non Performing Asset (NPA) and attract high interest as penalty. They also sell these loans to Asset Reconstruction Companies. 
I would like to highlight a recently reported incident of an active education loan of State Bank of India sold as NPA to Reliance Assets Reconstruction Company (RARC), even while the student borrower was still pursuing his education. When the student approached the bank for the next disbursement of fees, the bank then realised that they had sold the loan account already to RARC. There have been several such complaints against State Bank of India and other banks about their insensitivity towards young student-borrowers. A particular student from Madurai district in Tamil Nadu has reportedly committed suicide due to harassment by a private recovery agency.

In yet another instance, it was noted that the Central Bank of India shamed a poor education loan woman borrower for a meager default by displaying her name on a banner at a public place. The woman then lodged a complaint against the bank resulting in the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) levying a penalty of one lakh rupees on the Bank.  These are just a representation that have been reported, while there are many cases where education loan borrowers have been harassed by banks and have ended their lives. Of late there has been a rise in such incidents across the country. It is highly unfortunate that the banks do not seem to follow any norm in fixing guidelines to recover their loans, but resort to harass common man in ways that put them to shame.

The education loan scheme was designed to help deserving poor students to pursue higher education. It was created to encourage students aiming to study further and specialize in fields suited to them.  Recent study reports suggest that as on date only around 26 lakh (2.6 million) accounts with outstanding balance of Rs.60 thousand crore (600 billion) are the beneficiaries under the education loan scheme.  This is less than even 1% of the total bank credit. That being the case, the reason that banks put forth to the people that they are currently suffering due to heavy defaults and NPAs under Education Loans is a farcical statement.

In reality, assuming the worst NPA level at 5-8%, the total NPA under the education loan segment may not exceed 3000-5000 crore (30-50 billion).  The gross NPA of the banking industry is estimated at 8.50 lakh crore (8.5 trillion) and the top 100 NPA accounts in all the banks reported to be contributing around 25 to 30% of their total NPA.  While this is the factual position, banks are creating a misconception about the impact of education loans on their functionality.

The Government of India provides only a partial subsidy during the moratorium period (study period plus one year) as against the stipulated 100% interest subsidy.  In many cases, the eligible students do not receive the interest subsidy due to the fault of the banks.  Banks load the unpaid interest subsidy on to the student’s account and treat it as NPA.  In other words, the unpaid subsidy due from the Government of India is reflected in the NPA account dues liable for payment by the student.  Thus the banks due to the miss-management of the education loan portfolio create NPA artificially.

As Prime Minister of the world’s fastest growing economy that is home to millions of young generation who are currently educating themselves to take on the rest of the world, I humbly request you to take serious cognizance of this issue and ensure that the Government issues an order to the banks to not hand over these loans to Assets Reconstruction Companies.

While the Government under your able leadership on one hand propagates ‘Make in India’, ‘Start up India’ and ‘Skill India’ programs to encourage entrepreunership and ‘Mudra Loans’ and ‘Incubation’ to guide and develop small and medium size businesses, such discrepancies and insensitivities in the banking sector are proving to be highly discouraging of the Governments efforts.

In this regard, I request you to kindly urge The Finance Ministry and Reserve Bank of India to relook at their policies to ensure that:

§  A special credit guarantee fund should be created to enable the banks to claim their loan port folio
§  100% interest subsidy promised by the Government should be dispersed to banks without any reduction
§  The educational loan account in case of default should not be accounted under NPA and
§  The Government should issue an order to the banks not to hand over these loans to Assets Reconstruction Companies

Thank You


Warm regards,



(Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss)
To
Shri Narendra Modi,
Prime Minister of India,

South Block,

New Delhi.

Monday, August 1, 2016

Insensitivity of Banks towards education loan borrowers - Editorial in ezine PreSense


Editorial in the eMagazine PreSense 113th edition (July 2016)

Some Media reports in July 2016
During early July 2016, the media reported an interesting case of an active education loan of State Bank of India sold as NPA to Reliance Assets Reconstruction Company (RARC), even while the student borrower was still pursuing the course in college.  When the student approached the bank for the next disbursement of fees, only then did the bank realise that they had sold the loan account already to RARC. There have been several such complaints against State Bank of India and other banks about their insensitivity towards young student-borrowers.  These banks show urgency to offload their education loan accounts to RARC for reasons best known to them. One student reportedly committed suicide in Madurai due to harassment by a private recovery agency.

In another instance, Central Bank of India shamed a poor education loan woman borrower for a meager default by displaying her name on a banner at a public place.  When a complaint was lodged, National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) levied a penalty of one lakh rupees on the Bank.   Unfortunately, these banks do not seem to have similar courage to pull up the big and major defaulters, by disclosing their names through the media.  

Many banks do not follow the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) and IBA (Indian Banks’ Association) guidelines for fixing the repayment schedules, to commence  one year after completing the studies.  The guidelines stipulate a 15-year period with telescopic repayment instalments as schedule. However, almost all banks fix a higher amount of EMI (Equated Monthly Instalment) within a short repayment period.  This forces most of the students to default and promptly after three months of default, the banks immediately classify the loan as Non Performing Asset (NPA), attracting high interest as penalty. They also sell it off to Asset Reconstruction Companies. 

The Government of India provides only a partial subsidy during the moratorium period (study period plus one year) as against the stipulated 100% interest subsidy.  In many cases, the eligible students do not receive the interest subsidy due the fault of the banks.  Banks load the unpaid interest subsidy on to the student’s account and treat it as NPA.  In other words, the unpaid subsidy due from the Government of India is reflected in the NPA account dues liable for payment by the student.  Thus the Banks due to the   mis-management of education loan portfolio, create NPA artificially. 

If India is to become a developed nation, money should not be a hurdle for any brilliant student aiming higher education.  Although the education loan scheme was designed to help deserving poor students, in reality, as on date only around 26 lakh (2.6 million) accounts with outstanding balance of Rs.60 thousand crore (600 billion) are the beneficiaries under the education loan scheme.  This is less than even 1% of total bank credit. 

Banks tend to create a misconception among the people that banks suffer due to heavy defaults and NPAs under Education Loans.  In reality, assuming the worst NPA level at 5-8%, the total NPA under the education loan segment may not exceed 3000-5000 crore (30-50 billion).  The gross NPA of the banking industry is estimated at 8.50 lakh crore (8.5 trillion) and the top 100 NPA accounts in all the banks reported to be contributing around 25 to 30% of their total NPA.  To hide this factual position, banks tend to create a wrong impression about the hapless student borrowers and shame them for default of smaller amounts.   

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi frequently talks about ‘Make in India’, ‘Start up India’, ‘Skill India’, ‘Mudra Loans’ and ‘Incubation’ to develop small entrepreneurs.  But it appears that the Finance Ministry and Reserve Bank of India are doing just the opposite by discouraging small and medium segments through faulty policies.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Although Education Loan Task Force (ELTF), one of the initiatives of this ezine PreSense, has taken up these issues in the Parliament through supporting MPs (Members of Parliament), nothing seems to be drawing the attention of the Finance Minister and the Governor of Reserve Bank of India in this regard. 

May be, we need another Janardhan Poojary to drive the banks towards the common man.

by K. Srinivasan, Editor in Chief, PreSense. The author may be reached at editor@corpezine.com. Past ezines may be downloaded from www.corpezine.com.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Saturday, July 30, 2016

Education Loan Interest Subsidy portal opens on 1st August 2016 for FY 2015-16


Ministry of HRD has advised Canara Bank to open the Interest Subsidy portal from 1st August 2016 to 31st October 2016 for primary claims of Interest Subsidy on Education Loan for Financial Year 2015-16.  As per guidelines, the Branch Managers have to identify the eligible student borrowers and submit the claim for interest subsidy for FY 2015-16 through Canara Bank portal.  In the past, many branch managers did not claim the subsidy for eligible students.  

In view of this, eligible students may submit a letter to the Branch Managers requesting them to claim the interest subsidy from the Government for FY 2015-16.  If the Bank does not submit the claim within the period, the students will not get any subsidy.  Though it is the responsibility of the Branch manager to submit the claim, in their own interest, students are advised to ensure that the branches submit the claim within the stipulated date.  

Students who have availed education loan under IBA scheme to pursue professional or technical courses are eligible for interest subsidy during the study period plus one year, if the parental income is less than 4.50 lakh per annum.  It is sufficient if the student submits the income certificate signed by Thasildar or competent authority only once at the time of availing the loan.  They need not submit the income certificate every year.  

ELTF does not entertain any direct contacts from the students and parents.  If they want any further clarification on interest subsidy, they have to approach the managers only.  If the Branch Managers do not respond properly or do not give proper information, the students can complain to the Regional Manager and also to the Chairman of the Bank in writing.  ELTF does not deal with individual grievances.  

T K Rangarajan MP raises education loan issues in Parliament

T K Rangarajan MP raises education loan issues in Parliament

Please read the text of the speech (26th July 2016) in Parliament of Shri T K Rangarjan, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha

Quote
26.7.2016
T.K. Rangarajan M.P.,
Parliament Speech (26.7.2016)
Dear Sir,

At this zero hour I would like to bring to the attention of the house problem relating to educational loan.

This has two aspects.

One relating to sanction of the loan and the other relating to recovery of the loan.

The educational loan should not be equated with other loan. It is an investment on the youth of this country.

None of the Banks which show so much enthusiasm to create awareness about Home Loan and Car loan have come forward to create awareness about Educational loans. The Branch Managers shows no empathy for the students who approach them.

The Government announced 100% interest subsidy to eligible education loan borrowers. But in practice MHRD gave 20% interest subsidy shifting the 80% interest on the borrowers. And the Government not paying the interest subsidy, the loan is treated as NPA. The total mishandling of the subsidy has caused lot of inconvenience to the students.

Dear Sir, on the recovery side certain shameful thing are happening.

Now the State Bank of India has started selling their educational loans to Asset Reconstruction Companies. This resulted the Asset Reconstruction Companies approaching the borrowers like Shylock of Merchant of Venice and threatening the borrowers. In one case in Tamil Nadu the borrower of Educational Loan, not able to bear the harassment has committed suicide.
Sir in view of the importance of Educational Loan, which alone can help the Backward and SC/ST communities to go for higher education, I suggest that

1)                the Govt should issue the order to banks that they should not hand over these loans to Assets Reconstruction Companies.

2)                The special credit guarantee fund should be created to enable the Banks to claim their loan port folio

3)                The 100% interest subsidy promised by the Govt should be dispersed to Banks without any reduction

4)                The educational loan account in case of default should not be accounted under NPA.

Thank you Sir

Unquote 

* * *

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Insensitivity of State Bank of India kills a poor student - SBI harasses education loan borrowers through private agencies



16 July 2016

Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal ji
Hon'ble Minister of Finance
Delhi

The Chief General Manager
Reserve Bank of India
Mumbai

The Chairman
State Bank of India
Mumbai

Shri T K Rangrajan MP
Dr Anbumani Ramadoss MP

Deputy Secretary, MHRD, Delhi
CEO, Indian Banks Association, Mumbai

Dear Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal ji

When the undersigned met you at Delhi on 11th July 2016, I explained to you the problems faced by the poor students while and after availing the education loan.  I also explained to you as to how State Bank of India is handling the Education loan borrowers in a highly high handed manner.

1.  State Bank of India does not allow the eligible youngsters to participate in the recrutiment process, if they have defaulted education loan.  When the students are suffering from unemployment, such insensitive and anti national and anti poor policy of SBIworks against theinterest of the nation.

2.  State Bank of India does not provide repayment schedule of 15 years as per the scheme.  They create NPAs artificially and then sell to Reliance Company (Asset Reconstruction Company).  Reliance harasses the students, even when the students are eligible for better repayment schedule from the bank..

Due to such insensitivity of State Bank of India, one of the students Lenin (son of a mason) committed suicide today at Madurai, without bearing the torture of the private agencies.  Please read the report in The Hindu today.

In another instance at the same place Madurai, one of the physically challenged student (hearing and speech impaired) and son of an auto driver was threatened by Reliance.  Interestingly, State Bank of India, has handed over his loan account even before he completed his studies.  The student is not able to get the next instalment of loan, since the account was closed and transferreed to Reliance.

Education Loan Task Force (ELTF) receives numberous complaints of insensitive attitude of SBI.  This would not have been possible, without the permission of the Chairperson.  The pdf file of  The Hindu report dated 12th July 2016 is attached. 

We request you to kindly investigate into this matter urgently and handover the case to CBI
so that the Bank does not kill poor students in future.  ELTF suggests suitable disciplinary action be initiated against the erring officials, including Regional Manager and even the Bank Chairperson who has issued such insensitive, anti-poor and anti-national orders.

Today many of the TV channels are discussing this issue.  The action of State Bank of India brings a bad image to Modi Government as anti-poor.  Kindly initiate action, before it gets further complicated.
Regards

Srinivasan
Convenor
Education Loan Task force
www.eltf.in

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

New website links to get education loan interest subsidy status


Canara Bank has now announced the following two new links to get the status of Education Loan interest subsidy.  

For enquiry regarding CSIS Subsidy claims made up to 2013-14:

https://canarabankcsis.in/CSIS_Old_Data_Enquiry/

For enquiry regarding  CSIS Subsidy claims made after 2013-14:
https://canarabankcsis.in/SubsidyEnquiry/SubsidyEnquiry.aspx

These two links are maintained by Canara Bank, IT Department (Nodal Bank for Education Loan interest subsidy scheme)

If the students need any clarification, they need to approach the concerned Branch Manager only.  They should not write to ELTF.  ELTF does not have any details of individual accounts.  If the Branch Managers do not give proper response, the students can report to the Regional manager and the Chairman of the concerned Bank in writing.  They can also complain to Reserve Bank of India in writing.  

ELTF will not respond to the mails or facebook comments seeking micro details about the interest subsidy. 

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

MHRD extends the date upto 10th October 2015 for submission of CSIS claims


Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India has extended the date for submission of claims by banks up to 10th October 2015. The eligible students may contact their Branch Managers to ensure that claims have been submitted or their names have been included for submission.   This is an one-time opportunity provided by MHRD to all the Banks to rectify their earlier mistakes.

If the Branch Managers say that they have not received any information from their Head Office, the students can politely request them to verify with their Head Office or Zonal Office.  If the students / parents do not receive proper response from the Branch Managers, they can meet the concerned Zonal Managers and submit a letter in writing to the Zonal Manager.

ELTF gets frequent complaints that some Branch Managers deny interest subsidy to eligible students on the ground that the student had paid the interest, had not paid interest, or closed the loan account, etc.  If the student is otherwise eligible for interest subsidy, as per the scheme, then they cannot be denied the subsidy under different assumed reasons.  In such cases, the students can complain to the Chairman of the Bank and RBI immediately without any delay.  Before making such complaint, the students should give opportunity to the Manager to verify with their higher officials. 

They can also send a written complaint  to the Branch Manager, Zonal Manager and the Chairman of the Bank through Speed Post, if the Branch is not providing proper information or guidance.  It is the duty of all the Branch Managers to provide the information to the students.  The Branch is required to give all clarifications to the students.

Please go through the following three links to get better understanding.

Pending interest subsidy claims from 1.4.2009 to 31.3.2014 can be submitted as one time measure. 

Clarifications on Education Loan Interest Subsidy Scheme (CSI)

Portal opened for claiming unclaimed interest subsidy
http://www.eltf.in/2015/09/portal-opened-for-claiming-unclaimed.html

Please avoid contacting ELTF through mail or personally without going through the site and without attempting to resolve your grievance at Bank level.  


Monday, September 7, 2015

Portal opened for claiming unclaimed Education Loan interest subsidy

Nodal Bank Canara Bank has today (7th Sep 2015) opened the portal for claiming, unclaimed Education Loan interest subsidy for the loans disbursed during 2009-10 to 2013-14.  This is an one time opportunity for all Banks to claim the left out interest subsidy claims.  The portal will remain open for 30 days from today. 

Eligibility

Government of India, Ministry of HRD is implementing Educational Loan Interest Subsidy Scheme from 2009-10.  Economically weaker section students whose parental income is less than Rs.4.50 lakhs, pursuing professional and technical courses in India are eligible for 100% interest subsidy during the moratorium period, when they avail education loan under IBA model scheme.   Moratorium period is the study period plus one year or six months after getting employment whichever is earlier.


We have written in detail about the eligibility in the following link.

Claim for old cases (2009-10 to 2013-14)

The students who are eligible for interest subsidy and who have not received the subsidy earlier may contact the Branch Manager and submit a letter requesting him to submit the claim.  If the Branches says that they have not received any communication from their Head Office, the students can politely ask them to check up with their head office.  Still if the Branches do not respond, the students can complain directly to the Regional Manager and Chairman of the Bank.   If the claim is not submitted by the Banks for old cases before 10th October 2015, the eligible students cannot claim the interest subsidy later.  

The copy of the IBA letter is as follows:

Quote
No.RB/CIR/CSIS/26
9th September, 2015

VERY URGENT

To:

The Chief Executives of Member Banks

Dear Sir/Madam,

Web Portal Open from 7.9.2015 to 10.10.2015 - Last option to claim subsidy for old  cases under CSIS

We invite your kind attention to our circular No.RB/CIR/CSIS/15 dated 26th  August, 2015  regarding old pending claims in respect of ALL THE ELIGIBLE unclaimed cases [including SC/ST and General Category] for the period from the year 01.04.2009 to 31.03.2014 as a onetime measure.  This will be the final chance (copy enclosed).

In this connection, we have now been informed that, the Nodal Bank viz. Canara Bank would keep the web portal open for the period from 7.9.2015 to 10.10.2015 (both days inclusive) for uploading of leftover CSIS claims by the member banks for the year viz. 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14.

We therefore, request all our member banks to upload all eligible left over claims at an early date, as there will not be any further opportunity for the same as per the instructions of MoHRD, Government of India.

Please note that the CSIS Scheme is also applicable to RRBs, we request all sponsoring Public Sector Banks to inform their respective RRBs to take necessary action in the matter.

Please be guided accordingly with immediate effect.

Yours faithfully,

K Unnikrishnan

Dy. Chief Executive


Unquote

Claim for 2014-15

The portal for claiming interest subsidy for 2014-15 is already open and will be closed on 25th Sep 2015. 

The eligible students can also confirm with their Branches that their eligible interest subsidy for 2014-15, I repeat for 2014-15 has been submitted to the nodal bank.  If not submitted, they have to submit before 25th Sep 2015.  Banks should claim 100% of the interest charged by them, as subsidy for eligible students.


In both the cases (old and current), if the claims are not submitted the branches within the due date, the students will not get the interest subsidy.  In their own interest, students are advised to check with their Branches.  If they need further help or clarification, they have to approach only the higher officials of the Bank.

ELTF does not follow up with individual cases.  Please do not write to us or try to contact us.  The students have to take up only with Bank officials.



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